In recent years, the problem of aging in mainland China has become more and more serious. There are many elderly people who need rehabilitation services, and rehabilitation nursing homes are popular. This article establishes a theoretical framework based on the “Structure-Process-Result” (SPO) quality assessment model and the multi-level service quality model, discussing the factors that affect the satisfaction of mainland rehabilitation patients in rehabilitation nursing homes. According to the results of structural equation (SEM) analysis, we can get:(1) The main aspects of structural quality, process quality and outcome quality are positively correlated with the rehabilitation satisfaction of elderly patients. Among them, the process quality has the largest in-fluence factor, the structure quality is the second, the last but not the least is result quality. (2) In terms of process quality, professional competence, rehabilitation process, human-computer inter-action, information communication, and service attitude have a positive correlation with process quality. According to the influence of factors, they are ranked from high to low: professional ability, rehabilitation process, human-computer interaction, information communication, and service attitude. (3) In terms of structural quality, rehabilitation equipment, environmental structure, and human resource substructure are positively correlated with structural quality, and are ranked from high to low according to factors: rehabilitation equipment, environmental equipment, human resources. According to the results of structural equation analysis, the influencing factors that influence the satisfaction of mainland rehabilitation patients in rehabilitation nursing homes were determined, and related suggestions were made.